Insemination is a painless procedure consisting of placing of purified, selected and concentrated sperm directly into the uterus via a catheter. It is executed in a most preferred time of administration of sperm – ovulation.

Insemination is the first step of the treatment of patients belonging to the group of reduced fertility, with the aim of increasing the chances of fertilization of oocytes.


infertility caused by male factor infertility caused by female factor
  • slightly reduced semen parameters (10-20mln / ml, 30-50% of the traffic a + b)
  • no liquefaction of the semen
  • abnormal ejaculation (retrograde ejaculation)
  • hypospadias
  • sexual dysfunctions
  • idiopathic infertility
  • cervical factor when patency of fallopian tubes and normal structure of the uterus found
  • the presence of antisperm antibodies
  • endometriosis I / II degree
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • ovulation disorders
  • idiopathic infertility

How to prepare for insemination?

Patients before insemination are requested to take the following tests:

  • Cytology and vaginal swabs for bacteria and mycetes (bacteriological – mycological)
  • Smear test (taken between 10th and 20th day of the cycle):- Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma- Chlamydia (PCR method*, quality)
  • Blood group
  • Hormonal tests:
    – AMH
    – FSH (between 2nd and 3rd day of the cycle)
    – TSH and anti-TPO
    – Prolactin (taken on empty stomach at around 9.00 am)
  • Virological examinations:- HIV
    – HBS
    – VDRL (or ova)
    – CMV IgM
  • Toxoplasmosis (IgG, and IgM)
  • OVIDUCT PATENCY during the cucle stimulation ultrasound. Evaluation of follicles and possible hormonal tests
  • VIROLOGICAL TESTS (serological method):
    – HIV
    – HBS
    – HCV
    – VDRL (or ova)
    – CMV IgM
  • Seminogram
  • Blood group
  • Sexual abstinence for 2-7 days before the surgery

Additional tests:

Before the first visit, you can make already a part of these tests. During the first visit you will be referred to the other examination and the doctor will present a treatment plan.

The validity of laboratory tests (virological, Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Chlamydia) is 3 months.

Artificial insemination can be carried out both during the natural cycle or after prior hormonal therapy, which stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles. In the treatment, clomiphene is used (in treatment of ovulation disorders, it blocks the effects of estrogen) or gonadotropin (stimulates functioning of ovaries). The doctor monitors the cycle with ultrasound and when the ovarian follicles reach the appropriate size during ovulation, insemination is performed. The procedure does not require anesthesia, although some patients complain about discomfort and a light bleeding resulting from the placement of a catheter in the cervix. It takes a few minutes. After surgery sometimes light spotting may appear, and after several days – gentle abdominal and chest pain felt like before menstruation.

Side effects:

The insemination procedure is minimally invasive and uncomplicated. The side effects can be associated rather with previous hormonal stimulation, which may have an impact on the physical and mental condition of a woman.

It should be also taken into account that after the insemination, there is the risk of multiple pregnancy. Particularly if, as a result of stimulation, more than one follicle matures.

After the surgery:

You should allow yourself to relax and unwind. A woman should avoid the sauna and solarium, as well as the sun, vigorous exercise, drugs and stress. Healthy eating and standardized rhythm of sleep and wakefulness is important.

The efficiency of artificial insemination:

The efficiency of artificial insemination with husband semen is about 10%, depending on the semen parameters, woman’s age, the amount of mature follicles and additional factors affecting male and female fertility. The first failure should not, however, suggest that there is no chance of conceiving as a result of subsequent insemination. Efficiency can be assessed properly after minimum 3 treatments. After 4 unsuccessful inseminations it is worth considering continuing the treatment, because this is the first 3-4 treatments which offer the highest chances of pregnancy. Later efficiency decreases and according to the European Association for Infertility, when the sixth attempt fails, you should talk to your doctor about other ways to become pregnant.

The efficiency of artificial insemination with donor semen is higher and amounts to 25%.

Preparation of semen:

Before insemination semen from the partner is properly prepared in the laboratory. This is mainly aimed at the removal of plasma seed, bacteria, leukocytes and other cells of dead sperm and at sperm condensation of the best parameters. The number of spermazoons in the sample is, however, significantly smaller, so the initial concentration of sperm in the ejaculate should be taken into account. The most effective method to prepare a density gradient centrifugation and / or a swim-up.

The donor’s semen is an important alternative for couples in whom the problem is caused by a male factor or with genetic risk from the partner.


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